SUOMALAISEN SUSIKONFLIKTIN ANATOMIA, ACTA UNIVERSITATIS OULUENSIS A Scientiae Rerum Naturalium 552
|Kustantaja:||Oulun yliopisto|| |
|Sijainti:||Print Tietotalo|| |
|Tekijät:||BISI JUKKA|| |
During the past few decades in Finland, the growth of wolf (Canis lupus) and wild forest reindeer (Rangifer tarandus fennicus lönnb.) populations has created modern human-wildlife conflicts, of which the wolf conflict has expanded from a local to the EU level. The conflicts have emerged between local people and species but also between different stakeholders concerning methods of management and especially concerning the role of hunting in wolf management. The aim of this thesis is to make such conflicts more transparent and understandable. This thesis also provides suggestions regarding the governance of the conflicts. Wolf conflict data is based on a semistructured questionnaire distributed among interest groups and open hearings among local people throughout Finland during 2004. The data of the wild forest reindeer conflict is based on a questionnaire answered by farmers in the Suomenselkä area. Methodologically, qualitative as well as quantitative tools are used. The scientific approach of this thesis is animal geography. The conflict in wild forest reindeer management is predicted by biology of species, by damages occurring in farming though also social predictors can be found. However, the conflict is solvable in nature.
The wolf conflict is an example of one of the multifaceted human-wildlife conflicts where complex socioeconomical challenges are connected to each other at a local level. The specific biological abilities, the negative image of wolves and fear among people are of concern in this matter. In the society the conflict appears mostly trough stakeholders’ contradictory goals. However, the predictors of conflict between stakeholders became better understood through spatial and cultural contexts. Especially hunting developed by local elements and conservation having a non-local background, have clashed with the wolf being the major bone of contention. The wolf conflict can be defined as insolvable by nature, where the understanding of this is the key of management and mitigation processes. Because no final solution is in sight, despite constant management efforts, adaptive and learning processes are needed.